Eosinophil chemotactic cytokine; Chemoattractant for blood monocytes, memory T-helper cells and eosinophils. Causes the release of histamine from basophils and activates eosinophils. May activate several chemokine receptors including CCR1, CCR3, CCR4 and CCR5. One of the major HIV-suppressive factors produced by CD8+ T-cells. Recombinant RANTES protein induces a dose-dependent inhibition of different strains of HIV-1, HIV-2, and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). The processed form RANTES(3-68) acts as a natural chemotaxis inhibitor and is a more potent inhibitor of HIV-1- infection. The second processed form RANTES(4-68) exhibits reduced chemotactic and HIV-suppressive activity compared with RANTES(1- 68) and RANTES(3-68) and is generated by an unidentified enzyme associated with monocytes and neutrophils. May also be an agonist of the G protein-coupled receptor GPR75, stimulating inositol trisphosphate production and calcium mobilization through its activation. Together with GPR75, may play a role in neuron survival through activation of a downstream signaling pathway involving the PI3, Akt and MAP kinases. By activating GPR75 may also play a role in insulin secretion by islet cells; Belongs to the intercrine beta (chemokine CC) family.
Synonyms: CCL5, CCL5p, hCCL5, P13501, D17S136E ...